What are the Dead Sea Scrolls?

Who wrote the scrolls?

Who put the scrolls in the caves by the Dead Sea?

Do the scrolls have anything to do with early Christianity?

 

LET'S LOOK FOR ANSWERS HERE!

 

Brief History

    In late 1947, a young Bedouin shepherd looking for a lost goat peered into the dark recesses of a small cave on the shores on the Dead Sea and discovered the oldest biblical scroll fragments ever found. The cave where the shepherd’s initial discovery was made is located on the western side of the northern tip of the Dead Sea, about eight miles south of Jericho in Israel.

 

     Over the next several years, a total of ten other caves were found that had scrolls and scroll fragments in them; however, few were intact. Most of them were found in small pieces--over 15,000 of them! The finds can best be described as a giant jigsaw puzzle with many of the pieces missing or too decayed to read. It took years to determine that these discoveries represent a library of over 900 documents, with as many as 350 separate works in multiple copies. Most of these documents are copies of the Jewish scriptures and copies of other known non-canonical books of Jewish religious writings. Pieces of all of the Hebrew books of the Bible were found with the exception of the book of Esther. In addition to these writings, there were copies of property deeds; calendars of Temple priest work schedules; horoscopes; unknown psalms; commentaries on biblical books; a copper treasure map document; and finally, several fascinating scrolls that describe an additional set of laws for the Jewish children and their priests. These additional documents are the main focus of our study.

 

 

 

Here are some Images of the scroll caves and Qumran Ruins:

11:11 / 11:11

Map of Qumran and Cave Locations

Inventory of the items found in the Dead Sea Scroll caves.

 

Cave One

Was discovered in 1947 by Young Bedouin shepherd.

 

Cave 1 included scroll fragments of the following biblical text:

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Judges, Samuel, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Psalms, and  Daniel.

 

Other non canonized writings in Cave 1 include:

Commentaries on the Bible books of Habakkuk, Micah, Zephaniah, and Psalms. Other scrolls found in cave one have been listed as, The War Scroll, The Community Rule Scroll, Rule of the Congregation Scroll, The Thanksgiving Scroll, The Genesis Apocryphon, Testament of Levi, Liturgy of Three Tongues of Fire, Sayings of Moses, Book of Giants, Liturgical text, Hymns, Jubilees, Book of Noah, Apocryphal Prophecy, Sapiential text, Mysteries, New Jerusalem, Priestly liturgy, and some undefined fragments.

 

Other items found in Cave 1 include:

Ten scroll jars, pottery pieces, and leather phylactery holders.

 

Cave Two

Was discovered in 1952 by a Bedouin.

Cave 2 included scroll fragments of the following biblical text:

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Jeremiah, Psalms, Job, and Ruth.

 

Other non canonized writings in Cave 2 include:

 Ecclesiasticus/Sirach, Jubilees, Moses Apocryphon, David Apocryphon, a Prophetic Apocryphon, New Jerusalem. Book of Giants, Judicial text, and other non identified fragments.

 

Other items found in Cave 2 include:

Broken scroll jars, pottery pieces, a scroll jar lid, and three bowls.

 

Cave Three

Was discovered and excavated by archaeologists in 1952.

 

Cave 3 included scroll fragments of the following biblical text:

Ezekiel, Psalms, and Lamentations.

 

Other non canonized writings in Cave 3 include:

 The Copper Scroll (Treasure Scroll) Jubilees, Commentary on Isaiah, a Hymn of Praise, Testament of Judah, Angel of Presence, Angel of Peace, and other non identified fragments.

 

Other items found in Cave 3 include:

About forty empty scroll jars, leather pieces with names written on them, and pottery pieces.

 

Cave Four

Was discovered by Bedouin treasure hunters in 1952

.

Cave 3 included scroll fragments of the following biblical text:

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Habakkuk, Lamentations, Daniel, Ezra, and Chronicles.

 

Other non canonized writings in Cave 4 include:

Commentaries on the Bible books of Genesis, Malachi, Isaiah, Hosea, Micah, Nahum, Zephaniah, Psalms, and Commentaries listed as unidentified, Thematic, and on Canticles. Other documents include: Twelve Minor Prophets, Canticles, Qohelet, Paraphrase of Joshua, Paraphrase of Exodus, Mezuzot, Leviticus Targum, Job Targum, Reworked Pentateuchs, Ordinances, Vision of Samuel, Testimonia, Tanhumm, Apocryphal Lamentations, Ages of Creation, Wiles of the Wicked Woman, Sapiential Worke, Horoscope, Tobit, Enouch, Book of Giants, Enoch Astronomical Book, Levi Document, Testament of Naphtali, Time of Righteousness, Jubilees, Pseudo-Jubliees, Citation from Jubilees, Catalog of Spirits, Pseudepigraphon in Mishnaic Hebrew, New Jerusalem, fragments with place names, Exercitium Calami, True Israel, Prayer of Nabonidus, Pseudo-Daniel, Apocryphon Daniel, Apocalypse of Weeks, Historical Texts, Midrash Sefer Moshe, Rule of the Congregation, Text quoting Leviticus, Hodayot-like text, Liturgial like texts, Prophecy, text mentioning planting, text concerning Cultic service, text mentioning Isaiah, Halakhic Text, Community Rule Scroll, Rules texts, Damascus Document, Tohorot, Communal Ceremony, Four Lots, Curses, Purification Liturgy, Harvesting text, Blessing/Berakhot, fragments of prayers, Words of Maskil to all sons of Dawn, Mysteries, Adomonitory Parable, Meditation on Creation,  Men of people who Err, Phases of the Moon, Zodiology and Brontology, Otot, Calendrical Document Mishmarot, Mishmarot, Calendrical Document, Ordo, Astronomical fragments, Genealogical List, list of false prophets, List of Netinim, list of Proper Names, Letters, Debt Acknowledgment, Deeds, Deeds of sale, Accounts, Accounts of Ceral or Liquid, Temple Scroll, Prayer of Enosh, Admonition of the Flood,  Apocryphon of Joseph, Discussion on Exodus and the conquest, Apocryphon of Moses, Apocryphon of Joshua, Non Canonical Psalms, Paraphrase of Kings, Apocryphon of Jeremiah, Pseudo-Ezekiel, Works of God, Communal Confession, Miqsat Ma'ase ha-Torah, Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice, Vision and Interpretation, Sapiential Hymn, Composition Concerning Divine Providence, Rituals of Purification, Instruction, Text Quotes from Psalms, Ways of Righteousness, Righteousness, Paraphrase of Genesis, Instruction-like work, Sapiential Hymn Works, Thanksgiving Hymns, Hodayoth-like work, Barkhi Naishi, Lament by the leader, fragment mentioning court, Individual thanksgiving prayer, Personal prayer, Incantation, laments, Poetic Texts, Apocryphal Psalm and Prayer mentioning King Jonathan, prayers, Didactic works, Hallelujah text, Creation text, Eschatological Hymn, Narratives, narrative work mentioning Lebanon, Narrative prayer, Exposition on the Patriarchs, Text mentioning Samson, Light to Jacob, Sectarian text, fragment mentioning Quhelet, fragment mentioning Zedekiah, War Scroll like text, Polemical Text, Self Glorification Hymn, Prayer concerning God and Israel, The Two Ways, Text mentioning Jacob and Rachel, Renewed Earth, Rebukes reported by the Overseer, Text mentioning Festivals, Text mentioning  descendants  of David, Text mentioning mixed kinds, Apocryphon of Elisha, Prayer for mercy, fragments with red ink, Testament of Judah, War Scroll, More War Scroll like fragments,  Benediction, Marriage Ritual, Daily Prayers, Words of Luminaries, Festival Prayers, Songs of the Sage, Messianic Apocalypse, Prophecy of Joshua, Jonathan, Beatitudes, Testament, Words of Michael, Noah,  Testament of Jacob, Testament of Joseph, Testament of Judah, Testament of Qahat, Visions of Amram, Apocryphon of Levi, Proto-Esther, Daniel-Susanna, Four kingdoms, Biblical Chronology, Exorcism,More horoscopes, and Text mentioning the flood.

 

Other items found in Cave 4 include:

Parts of scroll jars, lids, bowls, a lamp, apot, a juglet, and pottery pieces.

 

Cave Five

Was discovered and excavated by archaeologists in 1952.

 

Cave 5 included scroll fragments of the following biblical text:

Deuteronomy, 1 Kings, Isaiah, Amos, Psalms, and Lamentations.

 

Other non canonized writings in Cave 5 include:

Work with citations from Malachi, texts with place names, the Community Rule Scroll, the Damascus Document, a rule of the sect text, Curses fragment, New Jerusalem, and unidentified fragments.

 

Other items found in Cave 5 include:

A Phylactery fragment.

 

Cave Six

Was discovered in 1952 by a Bedouin.

 

Cave 6 included scroll fragments of the following biblical text:

Genesis, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Kings, Psalms, Daniel, and Song of Songs.

 

Other non canonized writings in Cave 6 include:

Book of Giants, Samuel Kings Apocryphon, Prophecy fragment, an Allegory text, Apocryphal Prophecy, Priestly Prophecy, Apocalyptic text, Damascus Document, Benedictions, Calendar, hymns, Genesis related text, and unidentified fragments.

 

Other items found in Cave 6 include:

A Phylactery fragment.

 

Cave Seven

Was discovered in 1955 by archaeologists.

 

Cave 7 included scroll fragments of the following biblical text:

Exodus.

 

Other non canonized writings in Cave 7 include:

Letter of Jeremiah and some unidentified Greek fragments.

 

Cave Eight

Was discovered in 1955 by archaeologists.

 

Cave 8 included scroll fragments of the following biblical text:

Genesis, and Psalms.

 

Other non canonized writings in Cave 8 include:

A hymn, and the Mezuzah fragment

 

Other items found in Cave 8 include:

A Phylactery fragment.

 

Cave Nine

Was discovered in 1955 by archaeologists.

 

Other non canonized writings in Cave 9 include:

Unidentified fragment.

 

Cave Ten

Was discovered in 1955 by archaeologists.

 

Items found include:

Unidentified Ostracon.

 

 

Cave Eleven

Was discovered in 1956 by a Bedouin.

 

Cave 11 included scroll fragments of the following biblical text:

Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Ezekiel, and Psalms.

 

Other non canonized writings in Cave 11 include:

Hymns, Job Targum, Jubilees, Melchizedek, War Scroll, Songs of Sacrifice, New Jerusalem, Temple Scroll, fragment related to the Community Rules scroll, Leviticus, Targum and many unidentified fragments.

 

 

 

 

2017 NEW DISCOVERY

Cave Twelve

Was discovered in 2017 by archaeologists.

 

 

Items found in Cave 12 include:

A scroll jar with a blank scroll --unwriiten scroll in it, many broken storage jars, jar lids, leather straps, cloth wrappings, pottery, arrowheads, and flint tools.

 

 

 

 

 

Check out these videos of Qumran

 

 

Devilish Deception is a comprehensive study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and their impact on the ancient Israel and the world today.

 

Click on the book image below for the online Flipbook.

Unknown
-- / --
Unknown
-- / --